CogKR: Cognitive Graph for Multi-hop Knowledge Reasoning

Inferring new facts from an existing knowledge graph with explainable reasoning processes is an important problem, known as knowledge graph (KG) reasoning. The problem is often formulated as finding the specific path that represents the query relation and connects the query entity and the correct answer. However, due to the limited expressiveness of individual paths, the majority of previous works failed to capture the complex subgraph structure in the graph. We propose CogKR that traverses the knowledge graph to conduct multi-hop reasoning. More specifically, motivated by the dual process theory from cognitive science, our framework is composed of an extension module and a reasoning module. By setting up a cognitive graph through iteratively coordinating the two modules, CogKR can cope with more complex reasoning scenarios in the form of subgraphs instead of individual paths. Experiments on three knowledge graph reasoning benchmarks demonstrate that CogKR achieves significant improvements in accuracy compared with previous methods while providing the explainable capacity. Moreover, we evaluate CogKR on the challenging one-shot link prediction task, exhibiting the superiority of the framework on accuracy and scalability compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.

Policy-Gradient Training of Fair and Unbiased Ranking Functions

While implicit feedback (e.g., clicks, dwell times, etc.) is an abundant and attractive source of data for learning to rank, it can produce unfair ranking policies for both exogenous and endogenous reasons. Exogenous reasons typically manifest themselves as biases in the training data, which then get reflected in the learned ranking policy and often lead to rich-get-richer dynamics. Moreover, even after the correction of such biases, reasons endogenous to the design of the learning algorithm can still lead to ranking policies that do not allocate exposure among items in a fair way. To address both exogenous and endogenous sources of unfairness, we present the first learning-to-rank approach that addresses both presentation bias and merit-based fairness of exposure simultaneously. Specifically, we define a class of amortized fairness-of-exposure constraints that can be chosen based on the needs of an application, and we show how these fairness criteria can be enforced despite the selection biases in implicit feedback data. The key result is an efficient and flexible policy-gradient algorithm, called FULTR, which is the first to enable the use of counterfactual estimators for both utility estimation and fairness constraints. Beyond the theoretical justification of the framework, we show empirically that the proposed algorithm can learn accurate and fair ranking policies from biased and noisy feedback.

EFCNN: A Restricted Convolutional Neural Network for Expert Finding